Retrospective study on the prevalence of COVID-19 confirmed cases and evidence of gender bias in Libya
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Keywords

SARS-CoV-2,
comorbidity,
clinical symptoms,
Libya.

How to Cite

AQEEHAL, H., ALARBI, A., MANEEA, H., BENMANSUR, M., ELTURKI, A., ZAABIA, A., BENTOUTA, R. and GEBRIL, J. (2021) “Retrospective study on the prevalence of COVID-19 confirmed cases and evidence of gender bias in Libya ”, One Health & Risk Management , 3(1), pp. 29-37. doi: 10.38045/ohrm.2022.1.04.

Abstract

Introduction. To stop SARS-CoV-2 from spreading, it's crucial to have a solid understanding of the baseline characteristics of demographic variables, clinical symptoms, and comorbidity so that quarantining and testing protocols can be developed.

Material and methods. A retrospective study was conducted on COVID-19 Laboratory confirmed cases. Data were collected by using kobo toolbox, demographic variables, clinical symptoms, and Comorbidity was considered. Yates-corrected chi2 tests and Multinomial Logistic Regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of factors and their impact on COVID-19 prevalence.

Results. A total of 6302 of which 3536(56.1%) men and 2766 (44%) women with a mean age (±SD) of 44±17.6 years were included within the study.  Clinical symptoms and Comorbidity were significant for both sexes p<0.0001. Multinomial Logistic Regression confirmed that age <55, 3 or more symptoms (OR=1.130 CI95% 1.013-1.261) and 3 or more comorbidities (OR=1.035 Cl95% 0.942-1.137) were a significant risk factor for COVID-19 prevalence in male patients, among women, age 85>/=, 3 or more symptoms (p<0.0001, OR=1.995 CI95% 1.335-2.992) and 3 or more comorbidities (p<0.0001, OR=1.538 Cl95% 1.045-2.640) were significant risk factor for COVID-19 prevalence in females.

Conclusions. Our study suggests that the prevalence of COVID-19 patients and symptoms was higher in men than women. The high prevalence of smoking could have contributed to the high prevalence of COVID-19 among men. Study also suggests that the presence of at least one or combined comorbidities are risk factors of COVID-19 prevalence and a potential risk factor COVID-19 - related outcomes. More efforts should be exercised to protect patients with one or more comorbidities from being exposed to infection.

https://doi.org/10.38045/ohrm.2022.1.04
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